Baldwin County is a county of the state of Alabama. Based on the 2010 census, the population was 182,265. The county seat is Bay Minette. Baldwin County was created on December 21, 1809 by the Mississippi Territorial legislature from territory taken from Washington County and West Florida. The county is named in honor of Senator Abraham Baldwin, though he never lived in what is now Alabama.
The US federal government designates Baldwin County as the Daphne-Fairhope-Foley, AL Metropolitan Statistical Area
Baldwin County History
Around 1802, the Creek Indians and United States commissioners signed the Treaty of Fort Wilkinson, which separated Creek lands in two different areas to Georgia. The northern part involved land west of the Oconee River, which the legislature split into two new counties - Baldwin and Wilkinson - in1803 on the 11th day of May. Georgia's 29th county was named for Abraham Baldwin, one of Georgia's two signers of the US Constitution and founder of the University of Georgia. Around 1805, the Creeks signed the Treaty of Washington, which extended Georgia westward to the Ocmulgee River. An act of June 26, 1806 added lands ceded by the Creeks to Baldwin and Wilkinson counties. In 1807 on the 10th day of Dec., the legislature divided Baldwin County into four new counties - Morgan, Jones, Putnam, and Randolph (which was renamed Jasper). In the same act, Baldwin County was agreed land east of the Oconee River from Hancock and Washington counties
Baldwin County's first courthouse was a log cabin owned by George Hill in the resolution of Hillsborough. Here, the first court session was held in 1806 on the 26th day of June. Around Dec. 1807, the legislature created four new counties from Baldwin, with Hillsborough transferred to newly created Randolph (later renamed Jasper) County. At the same session, the legislature elected Milledgeville as the new county seat of Baldwin County and allowed county court sessions to be held in the state capitol. In 1808 the 22nd day of Dec., the General Assembly authorized Baldwin County to levy a tax to construct a courthouse on the southeast corner of Penitentiary Square. Until the courthouse could be erected, county court sessions were to be held in a rented house. Baldwin County's first real courthouse was completed in 1814 at a cost of $3,975 dollars. This building was used until replaced by a larger courthouse built on the same site around 1847. This courthouse burned around 1861, after which court sessions were held in the Georgia Capitol, the Milledgeville Opera House, and the local Masonic Hall. In 1883, the legislature authorized Baldwin County to borrow up to $25,000 to construct four fireproof county offices, as well as a courthouse, on the site of the former courthouse. Around 1885, work began on the new courthouse, which was completed around 1887. This courthouse was remodeled in 1937 and 1965. In 1990, planning began on a new courthouse. After local option sales tax referendums were approved in 1990 and 1992, construction of a new courthouse began in 1995 and was completed in 1997.
Geography - Land and Water
As reported by the Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,027 square miles (5,250 km2), of which 1,590 square miles (4,100 km2) is land and 438 square miles (1,130 km2) (21.6%) is water. Baldwin County is located in the southernmost part of the state. It lies fully within the East Gulf Coastal Plain physiographic section. It is the largest county by area in Alabama and the 12th-largest county east of the Mississippi River. It is larger than the US state of Rhode Island.
Escambia County History and Geography
Escambia County is a county of the state of Alabama. Based on the 2010 census, the population was 38,319. Escambia County was created on December 10, 1868. The county was formed from parts of Baldwin County and Conecuh County. Escambia County was named for the word "Escambia", it is believed to come from the Choctaw Indian language, meaning "cane-brake" or "reed-brake. The county seat is Brewton.
Escambia County History
Historic American Indian tribes in the area included the Muskogean-speaking Creek, Choctaw, and Alabama, who had inhabited the lands for centuries and had many settlements. The former two tribes were among those in the Southeast whom the European-American settlers called the Five Civilized Tribes, as they adopted some European-American cultural ways in an attempt to survive alongside the encroachment of settlers moving into the area in the early nineteenth century. Most of these peoples were removed by United States forces in the 1830s to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.
The state made land grants to European Americans, who developed the land as large cotton plantations, based on slave labor by African Americans. Some Creek remained in the area. At the time, they were required to renounce their tribal membership and were granted US and state citizenship. They continued to live as a community and to maintain ties. In the twentieth century, the Poarch Band of Creek Indians was recognized as a tribe, established a government under a written constitution, and have certain lands that were taken into trust by the federal government. They have established three gaming resorts to generate revenues for tribal health and welfare.
Formed by the Alabama legislature on December 10, 1868 from parts of Baldwin and Conecuh counties. The word "Escambia" is believed to come from the Choctaw Indian language, meaning "cane-brake" or "reed-brake." Escambia County is located in the southern part of the state, and lies on the northern boundary of Florida. It is bordered by Monroe, Conecuh, Covington, and Baldwin Counties. It currently encompasses 951 square miles. The county seat was originally located at Pollard; in 1880 it was transferred to Brewton, which was named in honor of William Troupe Brewton, a great-nephew of the first settler of the area. Other towns and communities include Atmore and Flomaton. The county is subject to heavy winds and rains due to seasonal hurricanes. In September 1979, the county was declared a disaster area due to damage from Hurricane Frederic. It was declared a disaster area again in September 2004 due to damage from Hurricane Ivan.
Geography - Land and Water
As reported by the Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 953 square miles (2,470 km2), of which 945 square miles (2,450 km2) is land and 8.1 square miles (21 km2) (0.8%) is water. The Conecuh River flows southwest through the eastern half of the county, and several of its tributaries, including Burnt Corn, Murder, Cedar, and Little and Big Escambia Creeks, intersect the area.
Mobile County History and Geography
Mobile County is the second most-populous county in the state of Alabama. Based on the 2010 census, its population was 412,992. Mobile County was created on December 18, 1812 from Mobile District of West Florida after annexation into Mississippi Territory. The county seat is Mobile, Alabama. Mobile County is named in honor of the indigenous Maubila tribe.
Mobile County comprises the Mobile, Alabama Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Mobile County History
This area was occupied for thousands of years by varying cultures of indigenous peoples. The historic Choctaw had occupied this area along what became called the Mobile River when encountered by early French traders and colonists, who founded Mobile in the early eighteenth century. The British took over the territory in 1763 (along with other French territories east of the Mississippi River) after defeating the French in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, it came under Spanish rule as part of Spanish Florida. Spain ceded the territory to the United States after the War of 1812.
Mobile County was formed by proclamation of Gov. Holmes of the Mississippi Territory on December 18, 1812. Mobile County is located in the southwestern corner of the State of Alabama, and is bordered by the State of Mississippi on the west, Washington County on the north, Baldwin County and Mobile Bay on the east, and the Gulf of Mexico on the south. It encompasses 1, 238 square miles. The city of Mobile is the county seat. Both the city and the county derive their name from Fort Louis de la Mobile, a French fortification erected near Mount Vernon in 1702. The word Mobile is believed to come from a Choctaw Indian word for "paddlers." The area was occupied by the French from 1702-63, by the British from 1763-80, and by the Spanish from 1780-1813. Courthouse fires occurred in 1823, 1840, and 1872. Other towns and communities include Citronelle, Bayou LeBatre, and Theodore.
In the 1830s, the United States forced the removal of most of the Native Americans in the area under President Andrew Jackson's policy to relocate them to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. Many of those who remained continued their culture; since the late 20th century, several tribes have reorganized and gained state recognition. Among those is the MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians, which was recognized as a tribe in 1979 by the state, but not federally; it occupies land along the border of Mobile and Washington counties.
After more than a century of European settlement, Mobile County was organized by the legislature and the proclamation of Governor Holmes of the Mississippi Territory on December 18, 1812. When Mississippi was separated and admitted as a state on August 15, 1817, Mobile County became part of what was called the Alabama Territory. Two years later, the county became part of the state of Alabama, granted statehood on December 14, 1819.
The city of Mobile, first settled by French colonists in the early 18th century as part of La Louisiana, was designated as the county seat from the early days of the county. Both the county and city derive their name from Fort Louis de la Mobile, a French fortification established (near present-day Axis, Alabama) in 1702. The word "Mobile" is believed to stem from a Choctaw Indian word for "paddlers". The area was occupied by French colonists from 1702-1763, whose influence was strong in the city. It was ruled by the British from 1763-1780, when more American colonists began to enter the territory; and controlled by the Spanish from 1780-1813.
At the end of the War of 1812, the United States took over the territory. At that time, new settlers were being attracted to the land, eager to develop short-staple cotton in the uplands area. Invention of the cotton gin made processing of this type of cotton profitable, stimulating wholesale development of new cotton plantations in the Black Belt during the antebellum years. Mobile developed as a major port for export of cotton.
Courthouse fires occurred in the years 1823, 1840, and 1872. Geography - Land and Water As reported by the Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,644 square miles (4,260 km2), of which 1,229 square miles (3,180 km2) is land and 415 square miles (1,070 km2) (25.2%) is water. It is the fourth-largest county in Alabama by land area and second-largest by total area. It includes several islands, including Dauphin Island, Gaillard Island and Mon Louis Island. Three miles off Mobile County's coast, at the entrance to Mobile Bay, is Dauphin Island, a subtropical Gulf Coast barrier island that is 14 miles long and 2 miles wide at its widest point. It is estimated that there are 1,300 permanent residents living on the island.
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